In vitro

Cultures of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, synoviocytes and chondrocytes (bi- and tri-dimensional models) to mimic the disease and assess drug functionality by measuring:

  • Cytokine Release
  • Collagen Synthesis
  • Hyaluronic Acid Synthesis
  • GAG Synthesis
  • Enzyme Activities
  • Bone Mineralization
  • Bone Resorption/Formation
  • Phenotype
  • Gene Expression (PCR, Qpcr, Microarrays)
  • Proteome Analysis

Models to study drug stability/solubility in synovial fluid (simulated or fresh, from healthy and osteoarthritic donors.

In vivo

  • Osteoporosis (by ovariectomy, immobilization, glucocorticoidinduced)
  • Osteoarthritis (by ACL resection, the test substance can also be administered IA)
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis (induced by collagen injection)
  • Osteointegration of titanium implants
  • Fracture healing


  • Histology
  • Histomorphometry
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Blood and urine analyses for the detection of specific markers
  • Gene Expression
  • Proteomic Analysis